Jacknifing with a Four Wheeled Carriage

What is "Jacknifing" with a horse-drawn four wheeled vehicle?

For the novice whip a two-wheeled vehicle is easier and safer to handle and to drive than a four-wheeled carriage.

This dangerous situation of a tipping over carriage can occur when a four-wheeled carriage is turned tightly or backed up incorrectly.
A sharp turn with a carriage that is not "cut-under" can end up in the whole vehicle tipping over, if the front wheels hit the side of the carriage.

If a four-wheeled carriage needs to be backed up jacknifing happens when the horse/s are not backing up straight and/or if the front and back wheels are not in a straight line before attempting backing up the vehicle.

In this case you will end up with the horse/s next to the back end of the carriage (in a cut-under vehicle) or the non cut-under vehicle will tip over.

A non-cut-under carriage will tip over if a turn is too tight, as the front wheels are hitting the side of the vehicle and are being blocked.

Cut-under means that there is a side-to-side space allowing the front wheels to go under the carriage in tight turns.

Although a cut-under carriage allows the wheels to come under the body, it can make the vehicle unstable.
If the horse/s keep coming around , then they can hit the vehicle or "jacknife" it and flip it over, too.

Despite of all of these dangers, for many drivers, more advanced and beginners, a cut-under vehicle would be the four-wheeled vehicle of choice.
Most Phaetons are cut-under, have got smaller front-wheels, don't have a box and can be driven with a single horse.

A two-wheeled vehicle should still be considered for the novice whip, as it does not become jacknifed even in tighter turns or by being backed up not entirely straight.

A horse carriage tipping over in a tight turn during an obstacle competition drive.

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